Chingis Khan science.ORF.at: Erderwärmung wirkt noch tausend Jahre
Dschingis Khan war ein Khan der Mongolen und Begründer des Mongolischen Reichs. Er vereinte die mongolischen Stämme und eroberte weite Teile Zentralasiens und Nordchinas. Seine Regierungszeit als erster Großkhan der Mongolen dauerte von bis. Dschingis Khan (mongolisch Чингис Хаан, ᠴᠢᠩᠭᠢᠰ ᠬᠠᠭᠠᠨ, ursprünglich Temüdschin, Тэмүжин, ᠲᠡᠮᠦᠵᠢᠨ oder Temüüdschin, Тэмүүжин, tatarisch „der. Dschinghis Khan ist eine von 19von Ralph Siegel produzierte deutsche Popgruppe. Ihre größten Hits hatte sie mit den Liedern Dschinghis. Und heute, , beginnt alles noch einmal von vorne, die Gruppe eroberte mit ihrem Superhit Moskau wieder die Charts auf der ganzen Welt! Dschinghis Khan. Als der Mongole Dschingis Khan im / Jahrhundert sein riesiges Reich eroberte, zeugte er mit zahllosen Frauen Kinder: Auch eine Frage.
Als der Mongole Dschingis Khan im / Jahrhundert sein riesiges Reich eroberte, zeugte er mit zahllosen Frauen Kinder: Auch eine Frage. Und heute, , beginnt alles noch einmal von vorne, die Gruppe eroberte mit ihrem Superhit Moskau wieder die Charts auf der ganzen Welt! Dschinghis Khan. Dschingis Khan war ein Khan der Mongolen und Begründer des Mongolischen Reichs. Er vereinte die mongolischen Stämme und eroberte weite Teile Zentralasiens und Nordchinas. Seine Regierungszeit als erster Großkhan der Mongolen dauerte von bis. Wie ein wild gewordener Haufen wirkten Dschinghis Khan in Israel. Doch das störte weder Jury noch Publikum - Ralph Siegels Band ergatterte den. Dschingis Khan hat ein sehr großes Reich aufzubauen. Er und Enkel Kubulai gelten als zwei der interessantesten Kaiser in der Welt. Das Debutalbum von Dschinghis Khan, das ich damals nur auf Cassette hatte, die lange kaputt ist, sollte doch eigentlich in Deutschland längst zusammen mit. Spannend sei der Fund "wegen der Nähe des Geländes zu Orten, die im Leben von Dschingis Khans wichtig waren." Der Friedhof liegt nicht weit entfernt von. Der Mongolenführer Dschingis Khan hat den Klimawandel seiner Zeit beeinflusst. Zu diesem auf den ersten Blick ungewöhnlichen Ergebnis kommt eine neue. Archived from the original on November 3, more info India — He then turned his attention toward the settled peoples beyond the borders of his nomadic realm and began the series of campaigns of plunder and conquest that eventually carried the Mongol armies as far reef film the the Adriatic Sea in one direction and the Pacific continue reading of China in the chingis khan, leading to the establishment of the great Mongol Read article. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Jung leonardo dicaprio. Zhao Hong reports in his travelogue that the Mongols he questioned did not know and had never known their ages. The settled peoples of China just click for source the products of the steppe to a lesser extent, but they could not ignore the presence amusing harry potter und der gefangene von askaban kinox phrase the nomadic barbarians and were forever preoccupied with resisting encroachment by one means or. The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrarrelying on superior strategy and tactics. Advancement within military and government ranks was not based verborgene schГ¶nheit stream traditional lines of chingis khan or ethnicity, but on merit. InGenghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu modern-day Beijing. The entire continue reading was followed by a well-organized supply system of oxcarts carrying food for soldiers and beasts alike, as well as military equipment, shamans for spiritual and medical aid, and officials to catalog link booty.
During his military campaign against the Tatars, Temüjin fell in love with Yesugen and took her in as a wife.
She was the daughter of a Tatar leader named Yeke Cheren that Temüjin's army had killed during battle. After the military campaign against the Tatars was over, Yesugen, one of the survivors went to Temüjin, who slept with her.
According to the Secret History of the Mongols , while they were having sex Yesugen asked Temüjin to treat her well and to not discard her.
When Temüjin seemed to agree with this, Yesugen recommended that he also marry her sister Yesui. But my elder sister, who is called Yisüi, is superior to me: she is indeed fit for a ruler.
Both the Tatar sisters, Yesugen and Yesui, became a part of Temüjin's principal wives and were given their own camps to manage.
Temüjin also took a third woman from the Tatars, an unknown concubine. At the recommendation of her sister Yesugen, Temüjin had his men track down and kidnap Yesui.
When she was brought to Temüjin, he found her every bit as pleasing as promised and so he married her. Genghis Khan took Yesui with him when he set out on his final expedition against the Tangut empire.
Khulan entered Mongol history when her father, the Merkit leader Dayir Usan, surrendered to Temüjin in the winter of and gave her to him.
But at least according to the Secret History of the Mongols, Khulan and her father were detained by Naya'a, one of Temüjin's officers, who was apparently trying to protect them from Mongol soldiers who were nearby.
After they arrived three days later than expected, Temüjin suspected that Naya'a was motivated by his carnal feelings towards Khulan to help her and her father.
While Temüjin was interrogating Naya'a, Khulan spoke up in his defense and invited Temüjin to have sex with her and inspect her virginity personally, which pleased him.
In the end Temüjin accepted Dayir Usan's surrender and Khulan as his new wife. However, Dayir Usan later retracted his surrender but he and his subjects were eventually subdued, his possessions plundered, and he himself killed.
Temüjin continued to carry out military campaigns against the Merkits until their final dispersal in Khulan was able to achieve meaningful status as one of Temüjin's wives and managed one of the large wifely camps, in which other wives, concubines, children and animals lived.
She gave birth to a son named Gelejian, who went on to participate with Börte's sons in their father's military campaigns.
In the early 12th century, the Central Asian plateau north of China was divided into several tribes of confederation , including Naimans , Merkits , Tatars , Khamag Mongols , and Keraites , that were all prominent and often unfriendly toward each other, as evidenced by random raids, revenge attacks, and plundering.
Temüjin began his ascent to power by offering himself as an ally or, according to other sources, a vassal to his father's anda sworn brother or blood brother Toghrul , who was Khan of the Keraites , and is better known by the Chinese title " Wang Khan ", which the Jurchen Jin dynasty granted him in This relationship was first reinforced when Börte was captured by the Merkits.
Temüjin turned to Toghrul for support, and Toghrul offered 20, of his Keraite warriors and suggested that Temüjin involve his childhood friend Jamukha , who had himself become Khan of his own tribe, the Jadaran.
Although the campaign rescued Börte and utterly defeated the Merkits , it also paved the way for the split between Temüjin and Jamukha.
Before this, they were blood brothers anda vowing to remain eternally faithful. As Jamukha and Temüjin drifted apart in their friendship, each began consolidating power, and they became rivals.
Jamukha supported the traditional Mongolian aristocracy , while Temüjin followed a meritocratic method, and attracted a broader range and lower class of followers.
Threatened by this rise, Jamukha attacked Temujin in with an army of 30, troops. Temüjin gathered his followers to defend against the attack, but was decisively beaten in the Battle of Dalan Balzhut.
Around the year , the Jin initiated an attack against their formal vassal, the Tatars , with help from the Keraites and Mongols.
Temüjin commanded part of this attack, and after victory, he and Toghrul were restored by the Jin to positions of power.
Around , the main rivals of the Mongol confederation traditionally the "Mongols" were the Naimans to the west, the Merkits to the north, the Tanguts to the south, and the Jin to the east.
In his rule and his conquest of rival tribes, Temüjin broke with Mongol tradition in a few crucial ways.
He delegated authority based on merit and loyalty, rather than family ties. When he defeated rival tribes, he did not drive away their soldiers and abandon their civilians.
Instead, he took the conquered tribe under his protection and integrated its members into his own tribe. He would even have his mother adopt orphans from the conquered tribe, bringing them into his family.
These political innovations inspired great loyalty among the conquered people, making Temüjin stronger with each victory.
Senggum , son of Toghrul Wang Khan , envied Genghis Khan's growing power and affinity with his father.
He allegedly planned to assassinate Genghis Khan. Although Toghrul was allegedly saved on multiple occasions by Genghis Khan, he gave in to his son  and became uncooperative with Genghis Khan.
Genghis Khan learned of Senggum's intentions and eventually defeated him and his loyalists. One of the later ruptures between Genghis Khan and Toghrul was Toghrul's refusal to give his daughter in marriage to Jochi , Genghis Khan's first son.
This was disrespectful in Mongolian culture and led to a war. Toghrul allied with Jamukha , who already opposed Genghis Khan's forces. However, the dispute between Toghrul and Jamukha, plus the desertion of a number of their allies to Genghis Khan, led to Toghrul's defeat.
Jamukha escaped during the conflict. This defeat was a catalyst for the fall and eventual dissolution of the Keraite tribe.
After conquering his way steadily through the Alchi Tatars, Keraites, and Uhaz Merkits and acquiring at least one wife each time, Temüjin turned to the next threat on the steppe, the Turkic Naimans under the leadership of Tayang Khan with whom Jamukha and his followers took refuge.
In , a khuruldai elected Jamukha as Gür Khan , "universal ruler", a title used by the rulers of the Qara Khitai.
Jamukha's assumption of this title was the final breach with Genghis Khan, and Jamukha formed a coalition of tribes to oppose him.
Before the conflict, several generals abandoned Jamukha, including Subutai , Jelme 's well-known younger brother. After several battles, Jamukha was turned over to Genghis Khan by his own men in Genghis Khan had killed the men who betrayed Jamukha, stating that he did not want disloyal men in his army.
Jamukha refused the offer, saying that there can only be one sun in the sky, and he asked for a noble death.
The custom was to die without spilling blood, specifically by having one's back broken. Jamukha requested this form of death, although he was known to have boiled his opponents' generals alive.
The part of the Merkit clan that sided with the Naimans were defeated by Subutai , who was by then a member of Genghis Khan's personal guard and later became one of Genghis Khan's most successful commanders.
The Naimans' defeat left Genghis Khan as the sole ruler of the Mongol steppe — all the prominent confederations fell or united under his Mongol confederation.
Accounts of Genghis Khan's life are marked by claims of a series of betrayals and conspiracies.
These include rifts with his early allies such as Jamukha who also wanted to be a ruler of Mongol tribes and Wang Khan his and his father's ally , his son Jochi , and problems with the most important shaman , who allegedly tried to drive a wedge between him and his loyal brother Khasar.
His military strategies showed a deep interest in gathering intelligence and understanding the motivations of his rivals, exemplified by his extensive spy network and Yam route systems.
He seemed to be a quick student, adopting new technologies and ideas that he encountered, such as siege warfare from the Chinese. He was also ruthless, demonstrated by his tactic of measuring against the linchpin , used against the tribes led by Jamukha.
As a result, by , Genghis Khan had managed to unite or subdue the Merkits , Naimans , Mongols , Keraites, Tatars , Uyghurs , and other disparate smaller tribes under his rule.
This was a monumental feat. It resulted in peace between previously warring tribes, and a single political and military force.
The union became known as the Mongols. At a Khuruldai , a council of Mongol chiefs, Genghis Khan was acknowledged as Khan of the consolidated tribes and took the new title "Genghis Khan".
The title Khagan was conferred posthumously by his son and successor Ögedei who took the title for himself as he was also to be posthumously declared the founder of the Yuan dynasty.
Genghis Khan was a Tengrist , but was religiously tolerant and interested in learning philosophical and moral lessons from other religions.
Muqali then reported on the two to Genghis Khan who issued the following decree on their behalf: "They truly are men who pray to Heaven.
I should like to support them with clothes and food and make them chiefs. I'm planning on gathering many of this kind of people.
While praying to Heaven, they should not have difficulties imposed on them. To forbid any mistreatment, they will be authorized to act as darqan possessor of immunity.
He thanked Qiu Chuji for accepting his invitation and asked if Qiu Chuji had brought the medicine of immortality with him.
Qiu Chuji said there was no such thing as a medicine of immortality but that life can be extended through abstinence.
Genghis Khan appreciated his honest reply and asked Qiu Chuji who it is that calls him eternal heavenly man, he himself or others.
The Daoists lost their privilege in after the Great Debate organized by Genghis Khan's grandson Möngke Khan when Chinese Buddhists led by the Mongol-appointed abbot or shaolim zhanglao of Shaolin monastery , Confucians and Tibetan Buddhists allied against the Daoists.
Kublai Khan had already met Haiyun in and been swayed towards Buddhism. Genghis Khan's decree exempting Daoists xiansheng , Buddhists toyin , Christians erke'üd and Muslims dashmad from tax duties were continued by his successors until the end of the Yuan dynasty in All the decrees use the same formula and state that Genghis Khan first gave the decree of exemption.
I have given this decree to the Shaolin elder to carry it. According to Juvaini, Genghis Khan allowed religious freedom to Muslims during his conquest of Khwarezmia "permitting the recitation of the takbir and the azan ".
Kublai Khan revived the decree in after Muslims refused to eat at a banquet. He forbade Halal butchering and circumcision. The decree of Kublai Khan was revoked after a decade.
Genghis Khan met Wahid-ud-Din in Afghanistan in and asked him if the prophet Muhammad predicted a Mongol conqueror. He was initially pleased with Wahid-ud-Din but then dismissed him from his service saying "I used to consider you a wise and prudent man, but from this speech of yours, it has become evident to me that you do not possess complete understanding and that your comprehension is but small".
During the political rise of Genghis Khan, the Mongol Empire created by Genghis Khan and his allies shared its western borders with the Western Xia dynasty of the Tanguts.
To the east and south was the Jin dynasty , founded by the Manchurian Jurchens , who ruled northern China as well as being the traditional overlords of the Mongolian tribes for centuries.
Genghis Khan organized his people, army, and his state to first prepare for war with Western Xia, or Xi Xia, which was close to the Mongolian lands.
He correctly believed that the more powerful young ruler of the Jin dynasty would not come to the aid of Xi Xia. When the Tanguts requested help from the Jin dynasty, they were refused.
Wanyan Jiujin, the field commander of the Jin army, made a tactical mistake in not attacking the Mongols at the first opportunity.
Instead, the Jin commander sent a messenger, Ming'an , to the Mongol side, who defected and told the Mongols that the Jin army was waiting on the other side of the pass.
At this engagement fought at Yehuling , the Mongols massacred hundreds of thousands of Jin troops.
In , Genghis besieged, captured, and sacked the Jin capital of Zhongdu modern-day Beijing. This forced the Jin ruler, Emperor Xuanzong , to move his capital south to Kaifeng , abandoning the northern half of his empire to the Mongols.
Between and , Kaifeng fell to the Mongols under the reign of Genghis's third son, Ögedei Khan.
The Jin dynasty collapsed in , after the siege of Caizhou. Kuchlug , the deposed Khan of the Naiman confederation that Temüjin defeated and folded into his Mongol Empire, fled west and usurped the khanate of Qara Khitai also known as the Western Liao, as it was originally established as remnants of the Liao dynasty.
Genghis Khan decided to conquer the Qara Khitai and defeat Kuchlug, possibly to take him out of power. By this time the Mongol army was exhausted from ten years of continuous campaigning in China against the Western Xia and Jin dynasty.
Therefore, Genghis sent only two tumen 20, soldiers against Kuchlug, under his younger general, Jebe , known as "The Arrow". With such a small force, the invading Mongols were forced to change strategies and resort to inciting internal revolt among Kuchlug's supporters, leaving the Qara Khitai more vulnerable to Mongol conquest.
As a result, Kuchlug's army was defeated west of Kashgar. Kuchlug fled again, but was soon hunted down by Jebe's army and executed.
By , as a result of the defeat of Qara Khitai, the Mongol Empire and its control extended as far west as Lake Balkhash , which bordered Khwarazmia , a Muslim state that reached the Caspian Sea to the west and Persian Gulf and the Arabian Sea to the south.
Genghis Khan saw the potential advantage in Khwarazmia as a commercial trading partner using the Silk Road , and he initially sent a man caravan to establish official trade ties with the empire.
Chinggis and his family and commanders invested in the caravan gold, silver, silk, various kinds of textiles and fabrics and pelts to trade with the Muslim traders in the Khwarazmian lands.
The situation became further complicated because the governor later refused to make repayments for the looting of the caravans and hand over the perpetrators.
Genghis Khan then sent a second group of three ambassadors two Mongols and a Muslim to meet the Shah himself, instead of the governor Inalchuq.
The Shah had all the men shaved and the Muslim beheaded and sent his head back with the two remaining ambassadors. Outraged, Genghis Khan planned one of his largest invasion campaigns by organizing together around , soldiers 10 tumens , his most capable generals and some of his sons.
He left a commander and number of troops in China, designated his successors to be his family members and likely appointed Ögedei to be his immediate successor and then went out to Khwarazmia.
The Mongol army under Genghis Khan, generals and his sons crossed the Tien Shan mountains by entering the area controlled by the Khwarazmian Empire.
After compiling intelligence from many sources Genghis Khan carefully prepared his army, which was divided into three groups.
His son Jochi led the first division into the northeast of Khwarazmia. The second division under Jebe marched secretly to the southeast part of Khwarazmia to form, with the first division, a pincer attack on Samarkand.
The third division under Genghis Khan and Tolui marched to the northwest and attacked Khwarazmia from that direction.
The Shah's army was split by diverse internecine feuds and by the Shah's decision to divide his army into small groups concentrated in various cities.
This fragmentation was decisive in Khwarazmia's defeats, as it allowed the Mongols, although exhausted from the long journey, to immediately set about defeating small fractions of the Khwarazmian forces instead of facing a unified defense.
The Mongol army quickly seized the town of Otrar , relying on superior strategy and tactics. Genghis Khan ordered the wholesale massacre of many of the civilians, enslaved the rest of the population and executed Inalchuq by pouring molten silver into his ears and eyes, as retribution for his actions.
Near the end of the battle the Shah fled rather than surrender. Genghis Khan ordered Subutai and Jebe to hunt him down, giving them 20, men and two years to do this.
The Shah died under mysterious circumstances on a small island within his empire. The Mongols' conquest, even by their own standards, was brutal.
After the capital Samarkand fell, the capital was moved to Bukhara by the remaining men, while Genghis Khan ordered two of his generals and their forces to completely destroy the remnants of the Khwarazmian Empire, including not only royal buildings, but entire towns, populations, and even vast swaths of farmland.
The Mongols attacked Samarkand using captured enemies as body shields. After several days only a few remaining soldiers, loyal supporters of the Shah , held out in the citadel.
After the fortress fell, Genghis supposedly reneged on his surrender terms and executed every soldier that had taken arms against him at Samarkand.
The people of Samarkand were ordered to evacuate and assemble in a plain outside the city, where they were killed and pyramids of severed heads raised as a symbol of victory.
The city of Bukhara was not heavily fortified, with a moat and a single wall, and the citadel typical of Khwarazmian cities.
The city leaders opened the gates to the Mongols, though a unit of Turkish defenders held the city's citadel for another twelve days.
Survivors from the citadel were executed, artisans and craftsmen were sent back to Mongolia, young men who had not fought were drafted into the Mongolian army and the rest of the population was sent into slavery.
As the Mongol soldiers looted the city, a fire broke out, razing most of the city to the ground. Meanwhile, the wealthy trading city of Urgench was still in the hands of Khwarazmian forces.
The assault on Urgench proved to be the most difficult battle of the Mongol invasion and the city fell only after the defenders put up a stout defense, fighting block for block.
Mongolian casualties were higher than normal, due to the unaccustomed difficulty of adapting Mongolian tactics to city fighting.
As usual, the artisans were sent back to Mongolia, young women and children were given to the Mongol soldiers as slaves, and the rest of the population was massacred.
The Persian scholar Juvayni states that 50, Mongol soldiers were given the task of executing twenty-four Urgench citizens each, which would mean that 1.
The sacking of Urgench is considered one of the bloodiest massacres in human history. In the meantime, Genghis Khan selected his third son Ögedei as his successor before his army set out, and specified that subsequent Khans should be his direct descendants.
Genghis Khan had left Muqali , one of his most trusted generals, in command of all Mongol forces in Jin China while he battled the Khwarezmid Empire to the west.
After the defeat of the Khwarazmian Empire in , Genghis Khan gathered his forces in Persia and Armenia to return to the Mongolian steppes.
Under the suggestion of Subutai , the Mongol army was split into two forces. Genghis Khan led the main army on a raid through Afghanistan and northern India towards Mongolia, while another 20, two tumen contingent marched through the Caucasus and into Russia under generals Jebe and Subutai.
They pushed deep into Armenia and Azerbaijan. The Mongols defeated the kingdom of Georgia , sacked the Genoese trade-fortress of Caffa in Crimea and overwintered near the Black Sea.
Subutai sent emissaries to the Slavic princes calling for a separate peace, but the emissaries were executed. There is no historical record except a short account by the Arab historian Ibn al-Athir , writing in Mosul some miles away from the event.
Subutai agreed but was in no mood to pardon the princes. As was customary in Mongol society for nobility, the Russian princes were given a bloodless death.
Subutai had a large wooden platform constructed on which he ate his meals along with his other generals. The Mongols learned from captives of the abundant green pastures beyond the Bulgar territory, allowing for the planning for conquest of Hungary and Europe.
Genghis Khan recalled Subutai back to Mongolia soon afterwards, and Jebe died on the road back to Samarkand. The famous cavalry expedition led by Subutai and Jebe, in which they encircled the entire Caspian Sea defeating all armies in their path, remains unparalleled to this day, and word of the Mongol triumphs began to trickle to other nations, particularly Europe.
These two campaigns are generally regarded as reconnaissance campaigns that tried to get the feel of the political and cultural elements of the regions.
In both divisions returned to Mongolia. These invasions added Transoxiana and Persia to an already formidable empire while destroying any resistance along the way.
The vassal emperor of the Tanguts Western Xia had earlier refused to take part in the Mongol war against the Khwarezmid Empire.
Western Xia and the defeated Jin dynasty formed a coalition to resist the Mongols, counting on the campaign against the Khwarazmians to preclude the Mongols from responding effectively.
In , immediately after returning from the west, Genghis Khan began a retaliatory attack on the Tanguts.
His armies quickly took Heisui, Ganzhou , and Suzhou not the Suzhou in Jiangsu province , and in the autumn he took Xiliang -fu. One of the Tangut generals challenged the Mongols to a battle near Helan Mountains but was defeated.
According to legend, it was here that Genghis Khan reportedly saw a line of five stars arranged in the sky and interpreted it as an omen of his victory.
In , Genghis Khan's army attacked and destroyed the Tangut capital of Ning Hia and continued to advance, seizing Lintiao -fu, Xining province, Xindu -fu, and Deshun province in quick succession in the spring.
At Deshun, the Tangut general Ma Jianlong put up a fierce resistance for several days and personally led charges against the invaders outside the city gate.
Ma Jianlong later died from wounds received from arrows in battle. The new Tangut emperor quickly surrendered to the Mongols, and the rest of the Tanguts officially surrendered soon after.
Not happy with their betrayal and resistance, Genghis Khan ordered the entire imperial family to be executed, effectively ending the Tangut lineage.
The succession of Genghis Khan was already a significant topic during the later years of his reign, as he reached old age. The long running paternity discussion about Genghis's oldest son Jochi was particularly contentious because of the seniority of Jochi among the brothers.
According to traditional historical accounts, the issue over Jochi's paternity was voiced most strongly by Chagatai.
In response to this tension  and possibly for other reasons, Ögedei was appointed as successor. Ögedei Khan, born Ögedei c.
He continued the expansion that his father had begun and was a world figure when the Mongol Empire reached its farthest extent west and south during the invasions of Europe and Asia.
Genghis Khan was aware of the friction between his sons particularly between Chagatai and Jochi and worried of possible conflict between them if he died.
He therefore decided to divide his empire among his sons and make all of them Khan in their own right, while appointing one of his sons as his successor.
Chagatai was considered unstable due to his temper and rash behavior, because of statements he made that he would not follow Jochi if he were to become his father's successor.
Tolui , Genghis Khan's youngest son, was not suitable since in Mongol culture, youngest sons were not given much responsibility due to their age.
If Jochi were to become successor, it was likely that Chagatai would engage in warfare with him and collapse the empire.
Therefore, Genghis Khan decided to give the throne to Ögedei. Ögedei was seen by Genghis Khan as dependable in character and relatively stable and down to earth and would be a neutral candidate that might defuse the situation between his brothers.
Jochi died in , during his father's lifetime. Some scholars, notably Ratchnevsky, have commented on the possibility that Jochi was secretly poisoned by an order from Genghis Khan.
Rashid al-Din reports that the great Khan sent for his sons in the spring of , and while his brothers heeded the order, Jochi remained in Khorasan.
Juzjani suggests that the disagreement arose from a quarrel between Jochi and his brothers in the siege of Urgench. Jochi had attempted to protect Urgench from destruction, as it belonged to territory allocated to him as a fief.
He concludes his story with the clearly apocryphal statement by Jochi: "Genghis Khan is mad to have massacred so many people and laid waste so many lands.
I would be doing a service if I killed my father when he is hunting, made an alliance with Sultan Muhammad, brought this land to life and gave assistance and support to the Muslims.
The exact cause of his death remains a mystery, and is variously attributed to being killed in action against the Western Xia, illness, falling from his horse, or wounds sustained in hunting or battle.
Large drums sounded commands to charge, and further orders were conveyed with flag signals. Every soldier was fully equipped with a bow, arrows, a shield, a dagger and a lasso.
He also carried large saddlebags for food, tools and spare clothes. The saddlebag was waterproof and could be inflated to serve as a life preserver when crossing deep and swift-moving rivers.
Cavalrymen carried a small sword, javelins, body armor, a battle-ax or mace, and a lance with a hook to pull enemies off of their horses.
The Mongols were devastating in their attacks. Because they could maneuver a galloping horse using only their legs, their hands were free to shoot arrows.
The entire army was followed by a well-organized supply system of oxcarts carrying food for soldiers and beasts alike, as well as military equipment, shamans for spiritual and medical aid, and officials to catalog the booty.
Following the victories over the rival Mongol tribes, other tribal leaders agreed to peace and bestowed on Temujin the title of "Genghis Khan," which means "universal ruler.
With this declaration of divine status, it was accepted that his destiny was to rule the world. Religious tolerance was practiced in the Mongol Empire, but to defy the Great Khan was equal to defying the will of God.
It was with such religious fervor that Genghis Khan is supposed to have said to one of his enemies, "I am the flail of God.
If you had not committed great sins, God would not have sent a punishment like me upon you. Genghis Khan wasted no time in capitalizing on his divine stature.
While spiritual inspiration motivated his armies, the Mongols were probably driven as much by environmental circumstances. Food and resources were becoming scarce as the population grew.
In , he led his armies against the kingdom of Xi Xia and, after two years, forced it to surrender. In , Genghis Khan's armies struck the Jin Dynasty in northern China, lured not by the great cities' artistic and scientific wonders, but rather the seemingly endless rice fields and easy pickings of wealth.
Although the campaign against the Jin Dynasty lasted nearly 20 years, Genghis Khan's armies were also active in the west against border empires and the Muslim world.
Initially, Genghis Khan used diplomacy to establish trade relations with the Khwarizm Dynasty, a Turkish-dominated empire that included Turkestan, Persia, and Afghanistan.
But the Mongol diplomatic mission was attacked by the governor of Otrar, who possibly believed the caravan was a cover for a spy mission.
When Genghis Khan heard of this affront, he demanded the governor be extradited to him and sent a diplomat to retrieve him.
Shah Muhammad, the leader of the Khwarizm Dynasty, not only refused the demand, but in defiance sent back the head of the Mongol diplomat.
This act released a fury that would sweep through central Asia and into eastern Europe. In , Genghis Khan personally took control of planning and executing a three-prong attack of , Mongol soldiers against the Khwarizm Dynasty.
The Mongols swept through every city's fortifications with unstoppable savagery. Those who weren't immediately slaughtered were driven in front of the Mongol army, serving as human shields when the Mongols took the next city.
No living thing was spared, including small domestic animals and livestock. Skulls of men, women, and children were piled in large, pyramidal mounds.
City after city was brought to its knees, and eventually the Shah Muhammad and later his son were captured and killed, bringing an end to the Khwarizm Dynasty in Scholars describe the period after the Khwarizm campaign as the Pax Mongolica.
In time, the conquests of Genghis Khan connected the major trade centers of China and Europe. The empire was governed by a legal code known as Yassa.
As the founder of the Mongol nation, the organizer of the Mongol armies, and the genius behind their campaigns, Genghis Khan must share the reputation of his people, even though his generals were frequently operating on their own, far from direct supervision.
Nevertheless, it would be mistaken to see the Mongol campaigns as haphazard incursions by bands of marauding savages.
Nor is it true, as some have supposed, that these campaigns were somehow brought about by a progressive desiccation of Inner Asia that compelled the nomads to look for new pastures.
Nor, again, were the Mongol invasions a unique event. Genghis Khan was neither the first nor the last nomadic conqueror to burst out of the steppe and terrorize the settled periphery of Eurasia.
His campaigns were merely larger in scale, more successful, and more lasting in effect than those of other leaders. They impinged more violently upon those sedentary peoples who had the habit of recording events in writing, and they affected a greater part of the Eurasian continent and a variety of different societies.
Two societies were in constant contact, two societies that were mutually hostile, if only because of their diametrically opposed ways of life, and yet these societies were interdependent.
The nomads needed some of the staple products of the south and coveted its luxuries. These could be had by trade, by taxing transient caravans, or by armed raids.
The settled peoples of China needed the products of the steppe to a lesser extent, but they could not ignore the presence of the nomadic barbarians and were forever preoccupied with resisting encroachment by one means or another.
A strong dynasty , such as the 17th-century Manchu, could extend its military power directly over all Inner Asia.
At other times the Chinese would have to play off one set of barbarians against another, transferring their support and juggling their alliances so as to prevent any one tribe from becoming too strong.
The cycle of dynastic strength and weakness in China was accompanied by another cycle, that of unity and fragmentation amongst the peoples of the steppe.
At the peak of their power, a nomadic tribe under a determined leader could subjugate the other tribes to its will and, if the situation in China was one of weakness, might extend its power well beyond the steppe.
In the end this extension of nomadic power over the incompatible, sedentary culture of the south brought its own nemesis. The nomads lost their traditional basis of superiority—that lightning mobility that required little in the way of supply and fodder—and were swallowed up by the Chinese they had conquered.
The cycle would then be resumed; a powerful China would reemerge, and disarray and petty squabbling among ephemeral chieftains would be the new pattern of life among the nomads.
The history of the Mongol conquests illustrates this analysis perfectly, and it is against this background of political contrasts and tensions that the life of Genghis Khan must be evaluated.
His campaigns were not an inexplicable natural or even God-given catastrophe but the outcome of a set of circumstances manipulated by a soldier of ambition, determination, and genius.